The history of strategic Planning began in the military. According to Webster’s New World Dictionary, Strategy is “the science of Planning and directing large scale military operations of maneuvering forces into the most advantageous position prior to actual engagement with the enemy”. Although our understanding of the word strategy and its application in planning and management has been transformed from a point of military maneuvering to other areas that aim at achieving and giving a structural framework to reach a competitive advantage.
Taking its name and roots from the military model, early models of formal strategic planning reflected the hierarchical values and linear systems of traditional organizations. Undertaken by the planning functions at the top of the organization, its structure was highly vertical and time-bound. A certain period would be set aside to analyze the situation and decide on a course of action. This would result in a formal document. Once this was done, the actual work of implementation, which was considered a separate, discrete process, could begin.